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Walker, R. (1987). The effects of culture, environment, age, and musical training on choices of visual metaphors for sound. Perception & Psychophysics, 42(5), 491–502. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw 2006-03-06 13:30:22 Pop. 4.75%
      There is a Western musical-visual correlate of increasing pitch with rising vertical placement (cf. placment of notes on a staff) -- this is subjective though as there is no direct perceptual correlate between more frequency and being higher on a vertical scale. Compare this to increasing amplitude and the visual correlate of larger size.

Frequency and visual vertical placement might be better discussed in terms of cross-modal integration or intersensory coordination. Intensity correlates can be termed amodal because the sensation of intensity is not specific to one modality whether that be hearing, sight or another sense.
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