Bregman, A. S. (1993). Auditory scene analysis: Hearing in complex environments. In S. McAdams & E. Bigand (Eds),
Thinking in Sound: The Cognitive Psychology of Human Audition (pp. 10–36). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 28 Sep 2005 10:43:03 Europe/Copenhagen
Suggests that humans do "not give absolute priority to the spatial cue" p.26 when separating sound in the audio scene because of the ability of sound to bend around corners, be attenuated by objects or to be reflected off objects. None of these affect the sound's fundamental frequency or add frequencies to the sound so it is reasonable to assume that frequency (as detected by the filtering effect of the pinnae) is a more reliable method of localisation.
Breinbjerg, M. (2005) The aesthetic experience of sound: Staging of auditory spaces in 3D computer games. . Retrieved January 24, 2006,
Added by: sirfragalot 28 Aug 2006 13:30:54 Europe/Copenhagen
States that localization of sound is achieved through time delays between sound arriving at the ears combined with some filtering of sound by the head.
Carpenter, E., & McLuhan, M. (1970). Acoustic space. In E. Carpenter & M. McLuhan (Eds),
Explorations in Communication (pp. 65–70). London: Jonathan Cape.
Added by: sirfragalot 07 Jan 2017 11:56:06 Europe/Copenhagen
"Auditory space has no favored focus. It's a sphere without fixed boundaries, space made by the thing itself, not space containing the thing."
"[Auditory space] can be filled with sound that has no "object," such as the eye demands."
Ekman, I., & Kajastila, R. 2009, February 11—13
Localisation cues affect emotional judgements: Results from a user study on scary sound. Unpublished paper presented at AES 35 th International Conference, London.
Added by: sirfragalot 02 Feb 2009 10:39:12 Europe/Copenhagen
Results showed that:
1. front point sounds were less scary than back point sounds. 2. front point sounds are less scary than back spread sounds. 3. Following on from 2., increasing the spread of front sounds and decreasing the spread of back sounds lessened the difference in scariness.
O'Callaghan, C. (2009). Sounds and events. In M. Nudds & C. O'Callaghan (Eds),
Sounds & Perception (pp. 26–49). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 27 Jan 2018 14:51:33 Europe/Copenhagen
"Sounds are events that take place near their sources, not in the intervening space."
Schafer, R. M. (1994).
The soundscape: Our sonic environment and the tuning of the world. Rochester Vt: Destiny Books.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 14 Feb 2014 16:44:00 Europe/Copenhagen
Reminds us that low-frequency sounds, with longer wavelengths, are subject to less diffraction, better filling space due to their greater ability to proceed around obstacles.
"Localization of the sound source is more difficult with low-frequency sounds, and music stressing such sound is both darker in quality and more directionless in space. Instead of facing the sound source the listener seems immersed in it."
Shinn-Cunningham, B. G. 2004, April 4—9
The perceptual consequences of creating a realistic, reverberant 3-D audio display. Paper presented at The International Congress on Acoustics, Kyoto, Japan.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 02 Feb 2006 13:48:52 Europe/Copenhagen
Where in-head localization in this context is perceived to be a disadvantage, compare to Schafer's (1994) comments which seem to provide more of an advantageous rationale for FPS players using headphones (p.119).
Wenzel, E. M. (1992). Localization in virtual acoustic displays.
Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(1), 80–107.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 28 Feb 2018 09:15:16 Europe/Copenhagen
A survey of the current (1992) state of localization research in acoustics.
Critique of the duplex theory (IID and ITD) and mention of the filtering effect of the pinna in both azimuth and elevation detection when combined with duplex theory. In-head localisation (IHL) over headphones; listeners fail to externalise sound. Externalisation may be aided by the addition of environmental cues while familiarity with the sound (its frequency specturm) may also help. Discussion on distance perception -- humans are poor at it.
Young, K. (2006) Recreating reality. . Retrieved March 9, 2009,
http://www.gamesound.or ... /RecreatingReality.html
Added by: sirfragalot 09 Mar 2009 10:47:52 Europe/Copenhagen
"In film, surround sound is largely concerned with the use of diffuse sound; hence the surround channels being represented by a barrage of speakers along the walls of the theatre. Film established fairly early on in its experiments with surround sound that directional sound was distracting to an audience as it diverted their attention away from the screen/virtual world. Game cinematics tend to stick to the conventions of film surround sound, but in-game sound uses the surrounds in a directional manner. This divergence is as a result of the contrasting voyeuristic nature of film against the participatory nature of games. It’s also because we lazily let the game handle most of the panning in a rather simplistic fashion, though you can expect our use of surround sound to become more sophisticated as we take advantage of discrete surround panning. It should be noted that a game which has surround sound differs greatly from a game which really uses surround sound to its advantage."