Blesser, B., & Salter, L.-R. (2007).
Spaces speak, are you listening? Experiencing aural architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Added by: sirfragalot 12 Feb 2014 16:37:10 Europe/Copenhagen
The authors distinguish between soundscape and aural architecture. The former emphasizes sound which has intrinsic importance. The latter emphasizes space and sounds serve merely to illustrate that space. A subtle and not necessarily relevant distinction.
Kress, G. (2003).
Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Aug 2006 12:37:22 Europe/Copenhagen
"The 'scape' in 'landscape' is related to the English word 'shape', and it is also related to the German word 'schaffen' -- meaning both 'to work' and 'to create'." ... any landscape, the communicational included, is the result of human work."
Rebelo, P. 2003,
Performing space. Unpublished paper presented at Symposium on Systems Research in the Arts: Music, Environmental Design, and the Choreography of Space.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 01 Nov 2006 14:34:56 Europe/Copenhagen
Defines sonic profile "as an internalised mapping of a soundscape – an outline describing the superimposition of various sources, events and their sounding in a space, as perceived by the listener"
Schafer, R. M. (1994).
The soundscape: Our sonic environment and the tuning of the world. Rochester Vt: Destiny Books.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 14 Feb 2014 16:44:00 Europe/Copenhagen
Defines the terms
hi-fi and lo-fi in terms of signal-to-noise ratio with the former having a higher ratio than the latter. "The hi-fi soundscape is one in which discrete sounds can be heard clearly because of the low ambient noise level. ...sounds overlap less frequently; there is perspective--foreground and background." "In a lo-fi soundscape individual acoustic signals are obscured in an overdense population of sounds. ... Perspective is lost."
"In the quiet ambience of the hi-fi soundscape the slightest disturbance can communicate vital or interesting information"
Defines some features of the soundscape (his term):
Keynote sounds: Ubiquitous, fundamental and pervasive background sounds (Gestalt ground) that are not always consciously heard. Signals: Foreground sounds (Gestalt figure) that are consciously listened to. Soundmark: A sound that is unique to the soundscape or that particularly aids in the identification of place. archetypal sounds: sounds possessed of a symbolism, inherited from ancient times that have a mystery about them. His use of the Gestalt terms is a little different to its use in the psychology of visual perception where a figure is perceived only because it is given mass and outline by the ground. For Schafer, any outlining is performed by the keynote sounds not on the signal sounds but on the characters of those who live among them--humans are defined in part by their acoustic environment.
Schafer claims that early societies had fewer flat line sounds. Any increase in these sounds came with the Industrial Revolution. For Schafer, discrete sounds have a biological life (they're born, they live, they die) and provide a sense of duration to the listener marking the passage of time. Flat line sounds are 'suprabiological' with no sense of time implied.
A chapter on rhythm in the soundscape. Rhythm here is the change in density or loudness of sounds compared to each other and the frequency of occurence.
Can this be applied to the complete soundtrack of a FPS game? If anything, the density and frequency of occurrence of particular sounds at particular times would represent different types of action or inaction. (i.e. this visual representation of sound can serve as an analysis of gameplay.) These are likely to be different for each player and in each location so might be useful to have one for a player standing still in different spots and different ones for other players in the same game. These charts would be a form of reverse sonification.
Smith, B. R. (2004). Listening to the wild blue yonder: The challenges of acoustic ecology. In V. Erlmann (Ed.),
Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound Listening and Modernity (pp. 21–41). Oxford: Berg.
Added by: sirfragalot 20 Sep 2012 12:10:56 Europe/Copenhagen
"The written word in early modern England still carried the bodily force of the spoken word. For us, written words are symbols, arbitrary signs of the things signified. For Shakespeare's contemporaries, I would argue, written words functioned as indices, as signs carrying a bodily, metonymic connection with the things being signified."
Truax, B. (2001).
Acoustic communication 2nd ed. Westport, Conn: Ablex.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 09 Feb 2008 15:40:55 Europe/Copenhagen
"The natural soundscape, for instance, may be heard and analyzed as a system of interrelated parts whose "acoustic ecology" reflects the natural ecological balance."
Defines the term
acoustic community "as any soundscape in which acoustic information plays a pervasive role in the lives of the inhabitants ... it is any system within which acoustic information is exchanged."