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Stockburger, A. (2006). The rendered arena: Modalities of space in video and computer games. Unpublished thesis PhD, University of the Arts, London.  
Added by: sirfragalot 15 May 2008 15:04:43 Europe/Copenhagen
      "[...] it is quite obvious that a mode of reduced listening will not be achieved during the playing of an audiovisual game, simply because one is drawn
to construct relations between the visual and auditory information. It is, however, possible to describe sound qualities that are inherently spatial, independent of an indexical connection to their source."
Tuuri, K., Mustonen, M.-S., & Pirhonen, A. 2007, September 27—28 Same sound — different meanings: A novel scheme for different modes of listening. Paper presented at Audio Mostly 2007, Röntgenbau, Ilmenau, Germany.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 07 May 2008 12:43:35 Europe/Copenhagen
      "Reduced listening can be referred to as musical listening only when listening process [sic] is concerned with musically determined qualities and structures."
      The authors propose 8 modes of listening as below (ordered from low to high levels of cognitive abstraction):

  • Pre-conscious modes

    • Reflexive Did you notice any reflexive responses triggered by sound?
    • Connotative Can you describe what kind of freely formed associations listening immediately evoked?

  • Source-orientated modes

    • Causal What could have caused the sound?
    • Empathetic Does it feel that sound signals someone’s state of mind or intentions?

  • Context-orientated modes

    • Functional What was the purpose of the sound? What function does the context indicate?
    • Semantic Does the sound seem to represent any symbolic/ conventional meanings?
    • Critical Was the sound suitable for the situation? Did you understand it correctly?

  • Quality-orientated modes

    • Reduced Can you describe the properties of the sound itself as objectively as possible?

      All of these modes require active listening and the attempt to ascribe one of their questions (or similar) to the sound. There is a passive awareness of background sound that, in their hierarchical list would be a pre-conscious mode and comes before reflexive listening. Is there another mode whereby one is aware of the sound but is attempting not to listen to it or to focus upon it (e.g. tuning out conversational hubbub at a party to concentrate on an interlocutor)?
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