Ihde, D. (2007).
Listening and voice: Phenomenologies of sound 2nd ed. Albany (NY): State University of New York Press.
Added by: sirfragalot 10 Jan 2016 09:21:22 Europe/Copenhagen
In Heideggerian terms, Ihde describes the auditory horizon as the point at which sounds are given over into the present. Sound is a giving and listening is what "lets come into presence the unbidden giving of sound."
Lee, K. M. (2004). Presence, explicated.
Communication Theory, 14(1), 27–50.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 06 Feb 2019 14:56:48 Europe/Copenhagen
"The term actual simply means that something can potentially be experienced by human sensory systems without using technology. It does not require the existence of something independent of human mentality; instead, it requires only the possibility of experiencing something without using any human-made technology. Therefore, the categorization of objects according to virtual and actual criteria is not concerned with the validity of rationalistic assumption that the subjective mental world exists independent of an objective physical world (the assumption behind cogito ergo sum). Nor does the categorization succumb to solipsism, which denies the existence of any objective reality and maintains only purely subjective reality, because it acknowledges the existence of actual objects independent of subjective reality [...] Real experience is the sensory experience of actual objects. Hallucination is the nonsensory experience of imaginary objects. Virtual experience is the sensory or nonsensory experience of virtual (either para-authentic or artificial) objects. Presence research is about virtual experience and has nothing to do with real experience of hallucination"
Szabó Gendler, T. (2010).
Intuition, imagination, & philosophical methodology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 18 Apr 2013 17:40:14 Europe/Copenhagen
Reasoning (according to Steven Sloman's Two Systems) involves two systems: Associative and Rule-based. The first (System 1) operates on similarity, contiguity, is automatic, uses generalization, soft constraints and is exemplified by intuition, imagination, fantasy, creativity etc.
Rule-based reasoning (System 2) uses symbol manipulation, derives knowledge from language, culture and formal systems, uses hard constraints, can operate on concrete, general and abstract concepts and is exmplified by explanation, deliberation, verification, formal analysis, strategic memory. Division into two systems may be simplisitic but there is certainly not just one system used for reasoning.