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Barfield, W., Zeltzer, D., Sheridan, T. B., & Slater, M. Presence and performance within virtual environments. In W. Barfield & T. A. Furness III (Eds), Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design (pp. 473–513). New York: Oxford University Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:22:38 Europe/Copenhagen
      "An important point to emphasize is that it is necessary for attentional resources to be directed to stimulus information before the sense of presence can occur."
Heeter, C. (2016). A meditation on meditation and embodied presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 25(2), 175–183.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:20:14 Europe/Copenhagen

"Closing the eyes activates interoception. . . closing eyes some of the time enhanced interoceptive awareness and when eyes re-opened, the virtual world felt different. More vivid . . . Closing the eyes animates our somatosensory systems including touch, proprioception (vibration and position), pain, and temperature (Jao et al., 2013). Closing the eyes also activates olfaction (smell) and gustatory systems (taste), even in the absence of olfactory or gustatory stimuli (Wiesmann et al., 2006). Closing the eyes activates our interoception network (used for processing the internal state) that includes imagination and memory (Xu et al., 2014). Opening the eyes is associated with stronger ‘‘local ef- ficiency’’ in specific regions of the brain and an increase in specialized information processing. But this comes at a cost. Opening the eyes suppresses interoception. Opening the eyes reduces the synchronicity, global effi- ciency, and integrated connections across visual, somatic, and auditory sensory systems (Jao et al., 2013; Xu et al., 2014). Opening the eyes suppresses imagination, mem- ory, and perception of internal states."

Jao, T., Ve ́rtes, P. E., Alexander-Bloch, A. F., Tang, I.-N., Yu, Y.-C., Chen, J.-H., & Bullmore, E. T. (2013). Volitional eyes opening perturbs brain dynamics and functional con- nectivity regardless of light input. NeuroImage, 69, 21–34.

Wiesmann, M., Kopietz, R., Albrecht, J., Linn, J., Reime, U., Kara, E., . . . Stephan, T. (2006). Eye closure in darkness ani- mates olfactory and gustatory cortical areas. NeuroImage, 32(1), 293–300.

Xu, P., Huang, R., Wang, J., Van Dam, N. T., Xie, T., Dong, Z., . . . Luo, Y. (2014). Different topological organization of human brain functional networks with eyes open versus eyes closed. NeuroImage, 90, 246–255.

      So, if we are not always present in real worlds (wandering mind), is it possible that VEs require too much salience/attention and that the presence we experience in VEs is far more sustained, even different, to that in the real world?

"Interoceptive awareness is a prerequisite for embodied presence . . . The interoceptive pathway and the DMN are competing neural pathways. They are not active at the same time . . . Interoceptive awareness refers to sensitivity to and awareness of physical sensations such as tempera- ture, pain, touch, and sensing from internal gastrointes- tinal, respiratory, cardiovascular, and urogenital systems."

Ramsdell, D. A. (1978). The psychology of the hard-of-hearing and the deafened adult. In H. Davis & S. R. Silverman (Eds), Hearing and Deafness 4th ed.(pp. 499–510). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 16 Nov 2018 11:13:35 Europe/Copenhagen
      Is saliency of the salient world a bodily awareness of the sound encompassing both subconscious and conscious awareness?
Slater, M., & Steed, A. (2000). A virtual presence counter. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 9(5), 413–434.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:17:27 Europe/Copenhagen
      "We can think of presence as a selector among environments to which to respond, which operates dynamically from moment to moment [...] A fundamental proposal of this paper is that the set of stimuli of the present environment forms an overall gestalt, providing a consistent believable world in itself."
Witmer, B. G., & Singer, M. J. (1998). Measuring presence in virtual environments: A presence questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(3), 225–240.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:16:12 Europe/Copenhagen
      Presence in a VE does not require completely shifting attention from the physical environment to the VE and humans can experience varying degrees of presence in different environments. The allocation of attentional resources plays a part in the development of presence but is not the whole story.
      "experiencing presence [...] requires the ability to focus on one meaningfully coherent set of stimuli (in the VE) to the exclusion of unrelated stimuli (in the physical location) [...] Though novel aspects of the VE may attract some attention, presence depends less on their novelty than on how well they are connected within the entire VE stimulus set."
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