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Slater, M., Usoh, M., & Steed, A. (1994). Depth of presence in virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 3(2), 130–144.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:17:39 Europe/Copenhagen
      "This paper is concerned with the concept and measurement of presence in virtual environments (VEs) (or "virtual reality")."
Slater, M., & Wilbur, S. (1997). A framework for immersive virtual environments (FIVE): Speculations on the role of presence in virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(6), 603–616.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:17:14 Europe/Copenhagen
      Immersion is a means of describing the technology which should be:
  • Inclusive: the shutting out of physical reality
  • Extensive: the number of sensory modalities provided by the technology
  • Surrounding: not a limited field but panoramic
  • Vivid: resolution and quality of the sensory displays as well as their information content and richness

Additionally, immersion requires:

  • a virtual body that is egocentric (i.e. first-person) rather than exocentric
  • matching between bodily movements and what is generated by the displays
  • a plot, a drama that exists within itself and this includes autonomy of other agents in the VE and interaction allowing the user to effect change in the VE.


      Presence is a function of immersion that increases as the immersion of the system increases. Nevertheless, the extent and balance between the inclusive, extensive, surrounding, and vivid qualities of the immersive technology depends on the context and the user's perceptual requirements. A VE dealing with an orchestra and its concert hall should have high quality audio whereas the image may be of secondary importance, while users favour different sensory modalities when constructing models of worlds.
      The authors disagree with Ellis (1996) (who suggests that presence serves no purpose for certain tasks in VEs) because Ellis equates presence with realism. The authors suggest that presence does not necessarily require realism.
      "Immersion can be an objective and quantifiable description of what any particular system does provide. Presence is a state of consciousness, the (psychological) sense of being in the virtual environment."
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