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Dennett, D. C. (1978). Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology. Hassocks, Sussex: Harvester Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:21:37 Europe/Copenhagen
      Talking of workers manipulating mechanical arms (viz. teleoperation): "They know perfectly well where they are and are not fooled into false beliefs by the experience, yet it is as if they were inside the isolation chamber they are peering into. With mental effort, they can manage to shift their point of view back and forth, rather like making a transparent Neckar cube or an Escher drawing change orientation before one's eyes. It does seem extravagent to suppose that in performing this bit of mental gymnastics, they are transporting themselves back and forth." (italics in original)
Gilkey, R. H., & Weisenberger, J. M. (1995). The sense of presence for the suddenly deafened adult: Implications for virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 4(4), 357–363.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 13 Aug 2018 12:53:23 Europe/Copenhagen
      "The problem of implementing a virtual environment in toto is intractable at present."
Held, R. M., & Durlach, N. I. (1992). Telepresence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(1), 109–112.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:06:46 Europe/Copenhagen
      Sensory factors contributing to telepresence:
  • high resolution and large field of view
  • transparent display system and lack of artifacts signalling display existence
  • consistency of information – sensations must describe same objective world and be consistent with what has been learned about the 'normal world'

Motor factors should allow "for a wide3 range of sensorimotor interactions."

      For telepresence, the most important factor is the degree of correlation between actions of the remote robot displayed back to the operator and the operator's movements triggering those actions. Correlation is lessened (and telepresence correspondingly) with time delays, internal noise, and distortions between movements/intentions of operator and actions of robot.
Hendrix, C., & Barfield, W. (1996). Presence within virtual environments as a function of visual display parameters. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5(3), 274–289.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:19:51 Europe/Copenhagen
      Collating as ego-presence virtual presence and telepresence because they both imply presence within an environment other than the one the user is physically situated in (the former environment computer-generated, the latter a remote physical environment).
Lee, K. M. (2004). Presence, explicated. Communication Theory, 14(1), 27–50.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 06 Feb 2019 14:56:48 Europe/Copenhagen
      Points out that the term virtual presence (Sheridan, 1992) refers to presence caused by the technology of virtual reality in order to differentiate it from the term telepresence (first used in the 1980s (Minsky, 1980) and 1990s to refer to the feeling of being physically transported – or being there – to a remote physical [not virtual] location).
Loomis, J. M. (1992). Distal attribution and presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(1), 113–119.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:19:04 Europe/Copenhagen
      In arguing that distal attribution re telepresence is most clearly felt when the operators have become skilled with the equipment, Loomis suggests that with regard to a lawful relationship between efference and afference, the operator must be able to model this relationship. This 'linkage' becomes transparent with experience and this leads to the externalization of the distal environment.
      "presence and distal attribution beyond the limits of some extending device (probe, teleoperator, virtual display) are not fundamentally different phenomena. Rather, they differ only that true presence occurs when the sensory data support only the interpretation of being somewhere other than where the sense organs are located; whereas, distal attribution to a remote location occurs when the sensory data represent both the remote location and that device or linkage that connects the observer with that remote location."
      Acknowledging that the operator of a teleoperation system experiences sensory information from remote/simulated environment and physical environment and that this often conflicts, Loomis makes use of Polyani's notions of subsidiary awareness and focal awareness. Where sensory stimulation from the remote environment is insufficient for true presence, the operator experiences a subsidiary awareness of the physical environment and/or teleoperation system he/she is actually in/using despite a focal awareness of the remote environment.

True telepresence is not possible as it is not possible to present the operator with precisely the same sensory stimulation they would receive were they to be actually in the remote environment.

Schloerb, D. W. (1995). A quantitative measure of telepresence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 4(1), 64–80.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:18:16 Europe/Copenhagen
      "An important category of objective presence is the case where the specified task is for a person to perceive that he or she is physically present in a given environment [...] This is subjective presence [...] The degree of subjective presence is defined to be the probability that a person perceives that he or she is physically present in the given environment."
      Presence requires objective interaction and not necessarily the difficult to measure vague feeling: "A person is objectively present in a remote environment where the person is not physically present, if there is some type of causal interaction between the person and the environment [...] The degree of objective presence may be defined based on the probability that a given task is completed successfully [...] Different types of objective presence may be defined based on what task is specified"
      Telepresence is defined as "a person is objectively present in a real environment that is physically separate from the person in space."
      "Virtual presence corresponds to telepresence where the teleoperator and the remote environment are simulated inside a computer."
      "Physical presence is defined here as the existence of an object in some particular region of space and time [...] Physical telepresence is impossible by definition: a person cannot be physically present in an environment that is physically separate from the person in space."
Sheridan, T. B. (1992). Musings on telepresence and virtual presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(1), 120–127.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:17:52 Europe/Copenhagen
      At time of writing, Sheridan states that the latest technologies driving presence are video and graphics technologies, 'head-coupled displays', devices such as data gloves and body suits, 'cutaneous stimulation devices' and 'high-bandwidth, multi-degree-of-freedom force feedback.'
      "is sense of "presence" simply a concomitant benign phenomenon, or even a distraction? Or is the quality of "presence" the critical psychological indicator of physical stimulus sufficiency?"
      "given sufficiently high-fidelity display, a mental attitude of willing acceptance, and a modicum of motor "participation" [...] the human operator experiences "telepresence" (sense of being physically present with virtual object(s) at the remote teleoperator site) or "virtual presence" (sense of being physically present with visual, auditory, or force displays generated by a computer)."
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