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Barfield, W., & Danas, E. (1996). Comments on the use of olfactory displays for virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5(1), 109–121.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 27 Jul 2018 15:21:50 Europe/Copenhagen
      A number of olfactory analogs to visual parameters are given. Why visual given that, in many ways, smell is similar to hearing?
Barfield, W. (2016). Musings on Presence twenty-five years after "Being There". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 25(2), 148–150.  
Added by: sirfragalot 08 Feb 2019 11:15:43 Europe/Copenhagen
      "we particularly need more studies on how the nonvisual modalities (e.g. haptic, gustatory, auditory, smell) affect the sense of presence"
Barfield, W., Zeltzer, D., Sheridan, T. B., & Slater, M. Presence and performance within virtual environments. In W. Barfield & T. A. Furness III (Eds), Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design (pp. 473–513). New York: Oxford University Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:22:38 Europe/Copenhagen
      The authors base their definition of presence in virtual environments (being there) on presence in non-virtual or real worlds and take this foundational definition from Webster's: ""Presence" generally refers to the sense of being present in time or space at a particular location"
      "An important point to emphasize is that it is necessary for attentional resources to be directed to stimulus information before the sense of presence can occur."
      Note that presence can occur when only a subset of sensory modalities are engaged. Claim that many VEs "successfully invoke presence" via auditory and visual modalities only.
Barfield, W., & Weghorst, S. 1993, August 8—13 The sense of presence within virtual environments: A conceptual framework. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Amsterdam.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:22:15 Europe/Copenhagen
      Proposes a number of factors influencing presence in VEs (virtual presence):
  • display fidelity
  • environmental stability
  • sensory bandwidth (phenomenal richness)
  • interactive fidelity
  • person variables
  • task variables
  • context variables


      "Virtual presence is generally conceived of as a hypothetical subjective state of awareness and involvement in a non-present environment."
      Proposes a number of psychphysiological means to assess presence.
      Attempting to assess presence: "we might expect a performance decrement on concurrent tasks defined solely in the natural environment. And when natural and virtual frames of reference call for conflicting responses, the direction of resolution of the conflict may also serve as an indicator of the degree of presence within each. Furthermore, as the sense of presence increases, the attentional resoures allocated to the objects or tasks performed in the virtual environment should increase. Therefore, we postulate that as the sense of presence increases, the virtual environment participant will pay less attention to sensory input external to the virtual environment."
Benyon, D., Smyth, M., O'Neill, S., McCall, R., & Carroll, F. (2006). The place probe: Exploring a sense of place in real and virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(6), 668–687.  
Added by: sirfragalot 16 Sep 2018 15:17:44 Europe/Copenhagen
      "the sense of presence requires a body; it is not just a mental construct."
Berry, C. (1987). The actor and his text. London: Harrap.  
Added by: sirfragalot 04 Oct 2006 09:24:55 Europe/Copenhagen
      "...our voice is our sound presence, and is the means by which we commit our private world to the world outside"
Blesser, B., & Salter, L.-R. (2007). Spaces speak, are you listening? Experiencing aural architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 12 Feb 2014 16:37:10 Europe/Copenhagen
      "In all spatial experiences, there are two perspectives: allocentric, from which objects are perceived relative to a fixed external framework; and egocentric, from which objects are perceived relative to the perceiver."
Bouchard, S., St-Jacques, J., Robillard, G., & Renaud, P. (2008). Anxiety increases the feeling of presence in virtual reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 17(4), 376–391.  
Added by: sirfragalot 25 Sep 2018 16:28:33 Europe/Copenhagen
      If anxiety is a mild form of fear is it related to greater attention to the sensory world (being anxious to survive) and so a larger salient horizon? Is the extent of the salient horizon directly related to presence?
      Suggest that there is a limit to the linear equation between increasing sophistication of immersive technology/level of realism and development of presence.
      Not only external factors but also "psychological states and appraisal patterns of users might also affect presence."
Byrne, R. M. J. (2007). The rational imagination: How people create alternatives to reality. Cambridge: The MIT Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 27 Aug 2011 04:49:23 Europe/Copenhagen
      The similarities in imaginative scenarios suggest "that there are "joints" in reality, junctures that attract everyone's attention."
Calleja, G. (2014). Immersion in virtual worlds. In M. Grimshaw (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Virtuality (pp. 222–236). New York: Oxford University Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:21:52 Europe/Copenhagen
      Calleja favors the term incorporation over immersion or presence because the latter two "are defined by their discontinuity from the real physical world [whereas] incorporation occurs [when playing a computer game, for example] when the game world is present to the player while simultaneously the player is present, via an avatar, to the virtual environment."
      Calleja's main bone of contention with concepts such as immersion and presence is that they imply that the user of a virtual environment is "merely a subjective consciousness being poured into the containing vessel of the virtual environment."
      For incorporation to occur, the medium must "specifically acknowledge the player's presence and agency within the virtual world."
      "while high-fidelity systems are an important part of enhancing the intensity of an experience, they do not themselves create a sense of presence."
Calleja, G. 2007, September 24—28 Revising immersion: A conceptual model for the analysis of digital game involvement. Paper presented at Situated Play, University of Tokyo.  
Added by: sirfragalot 23 Aug 2009 11:31:43 Europe/Copenhagen
      Uses a form of Goffman's 'frames' to account for incorporation where "[e]ach frame represents a modality of meaning through which the role of playing experience is interpreted and performed. Players swith between frames rapidly and fluently". There are 6 frames:

1. tactical involvement
2. affective involvement
3. narrative involvement
4. shared involvement
5. performative involvement
6. spatial involvement

The Digital Game Involvement Model has two temporal phases: macro-involvement and micro-involvement. The latter operates on a "moment by moment involvement of the game-playing instance" whereas the former focuses on "sustained engagement through the long-term". During each of the two phases, players can experience one or more of the 6 frames.
      "Performative engagement is the actualization of tactical involvement representing the execution of established decisions"
      The 6 frames describe "a spectrum of experience ranging from conscious attention to internalized knowledge." ...See comments about the quote "This process of internalization also implies an intensification in focus where players cease to view the virtual environment as separate from their immediate surroundings and start interacting with it in an instinctive way".
      "Incorporation is the subjective experience of inhabiting a virtual environment facilitated by the potential to act meaningfully within it while being present to others."
      Calleja's objection to the term 'immersion' is that it is a binary opposition between the player and the game world where the game screen, the computer monitor or TV, is the boundary with the represented game environment on one side and the real world on the other.
Carr, D. (2006). Space, navigation and affect. In Computer Games: Text, Narrative and Play (pp. 59–71). Cambridge: Polity.  
Added by: sirfragalot 17 Sep 2009 09:41:22 Europe/Copenhagen
      Summarizing immersion as described by other writers, Carr suggests that there are two categories of immersion: "perceptual immersion, which occurs when an experience monopolizes the senses of the participant, and psychological immersion, which involves the participant becoming engrossed through their imaginative or mental absorption."
Chertoff, D. B., Schatz, S. L., McDaniel, R., & Bowers, C. A. (2008). Improving presence theory through experiential design. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 17(4), 405–413.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 27 Sep 2018 16:27:00 Europe/Copenhagen  Mat. 10/10
      "Current virtual environments are primarily conceptualized as information technologies, while they should instead be considered "knowledge technologies"."
      "presence is an emergent factor due to the interaction of many components [...] it is a result that is greater than the sum of its parts."
      Proposes 5 dimensions to presence (dimensions come from experience design theories):
  • sensory – sensory input and perceptions (VR: hardware and software)
  • cognitive – mental engagement (VR: task engagement [motivation, meaningfulness, continuity])
  • affective – emotional state (VR: emotions in VR mimic emotions in same RW scenario?)
  • active – personal connection, incorporation into personal narrative (VR: empathy, avatar identification etc.)
  • relational – social aspects (VR: co-experience and collaborative experience of VR)
Chion, M. (1994). Audio-vision: Sound on screen C. Gorbman, Trans. New York: Columbia University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 27 Apr 2016 08:51:48 Europe/Copenhagen
      "Of two war reports that come back from a very real war, the one in which the image is shaky and rough, with uneven focus and other "mistakes," will seem more true than the one with impeccable framing, perfect visibility, and imperceptible grain. In much the same way for sound, the impression of realism is often tied to a feeling of discomfort, of an uneven signal, of interference and microphone noise, etc."
Davis, E. (1997) Acoustic cyberspace. . Retrieved March 15, 2011,  
Added by: sirfragalot 15 Mar 2011 11:57:03 Europe/Copenhagen
      "My question here is: why are acoustic spaces so effective in this regard? What is it about sound that is so potentially immersive? I think it has to do with how we register it—how it affects different areas of the bodymind than visuals do. Affect is a tremendously important dimension of experience, and one of the most difficult to achieve in a visual environment. "Atmosphere" might be a good way to describe this aspect: sound produces atmosphere, almost in the way that incense—which registers with yet another sense—can do. Sound and smell carry vectors of mood and affect which change the qualitative organization of space, unfolding a different logic with a space's range of potentials. Ambient music, or an ambient soundscape, can change the quality of a space in subtle or dramatic ways."
Ellis, S. R. (1996). Presence of mind: A reaction to Thomas Sheridan's "further musings on the psychophysics of presence". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5(2), 247–259.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 26 Jul 2018 10:46:56 Europe/Copenhagen
      "A clear meaning for virtual as used in this paper may be based on a more general concept: virtualization, which can be considered the process by which a viewer interprets patterned sensory impressions to represent objects in an environment other than that from which the impressions physically originate."
      "one could consider the normal functioning of the human sensory systems as the special case in which the detection of physical energy and the interpretation of patterned sensory impressions result in the perception of real objects in the surrounding physical environment. In this respect perception of the physical environment resolves to the case in which through a process of systematic doubt, it is impossible for an observer to refute the hypothesis that the apparent source of sensory stimulus is indeed its physical source."
      "As more and more sources of sensory information and envrionmental control are available, the process of virtualization  [...] can be more and more complete until the resulting impression is indistinguishable from physical reality"
      Discussing how measurements of aspects of "a virtual environment display convince its users that they are present in a synthetic world"
      In suggesting that interface performance in virtual environments  can be improved by decreasing presence, Ellis suggests removing or controlling the realism of spatial information.
Ermi, L., & Mäyrä, F. 2005, June 16—20 Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: Analysing immersion. Paper presented at Changing Views -- Worlds in Play, Toronto.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 30 Mar 2011 04:15:12 Europe/Copenhagen
      Using Pine and Gilmore's (1999) two dimensions of experience, participation (passive <--> active)and connection (absorption <--> immersion), the authors define immersion as "becoming physically or virtually a part of the experience itself" as opposed to absorption which is "directing attention to an experience that is brought to mind" and use these two definitions to define four realms of experience:

  • Entertainment -- absorption and passive participation
  • Educational -- absorption and active participation
  • Aesthetic -- immersion and passive participation
  • Escapist -- immersion and active participation

Gameplay is escapist.
      Paraphrasing Pine and Gilmore (1999), "immersion means becoming physically or virtually a part of the experience itself"
Flach, J. M., & Holden, J. G. (1998). The reality of experience: Gibson's way. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(1), 90–95.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:21:24 Europe/Copenhagen
      Re Gibson, "action takes precedence. The experience depends more on what can be "done" than on the quality of visual or acoustic images."
      "in the design of experiences in virtual environments the constraints on action take precedence over the constraints on perception."
      "the reality of experience (i.e. presence or immersion)."
Fontaine, G. (1992). The experience of a sense of presence in intercultural and international encounters. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(4), 482–490.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:21:12 Europe/Copenhagen
      Two major differences between flow and presence: "(1) flow involves a narrow focus on a limited range of task characteristics, whereas presence involves a broader awareness of the task ecology; and (2) flow is associated with feelings of control whereas presence has been associated with novel ecologies involving a lack of predictability that makes feelings of control difficult."
Freeman, J., Avons, S. E., Meddis, R., Pearson, D. E., & IJsselsteijn, W. (2000). Using behavioral realism to estimate presence: A study of the utility of postural responses to motion stimuli. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 9(2), 149–164.  
Added by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:03:26 Europe/Copenhagen
      "in the normal waking state, we are continually aware of our place in the surrounding environment. Direct sensory information confirming our location is always available and is continually updated. Thus, under normal circumstances, one's current location is a universal feature of awareness, rather than a quality that varies continuously over time. The subjective evaluation of presence requires graded ratings of a sensation that is typically invariant, and observers' lack of experience of rating presence is one possible explanation of the difficulty in providing stable ratings [...] A second, related issue is that there are no verbal descriptors of degrees of presence, because to date there has been no need to communicate such feelings [...] A third concern is that asking subjects to rate presence involves a conflict between sensation and knowledge. Observers know that they are currently in the test situation, and can remember how they got there [...] this conflict between sensation and knowledge is inherent in the measurement of presence [...] A final issue [...] is that the notion of presence is inextricably bound up with attentional factors. The extent to which an observer feels par of an environment may depend not only on the quality and extent of sensory information, but on the interest evoked by the displayed scene."
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