Benjamin, W. (1936) The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. . Retrieved March 8, 2006,
http://www.marxists.org ... y/works/ge/benjamin.htm
Added by: sirfragalot 13 Mar 2006 14:29:27 Europe/Copenhagen
"The presence of the original is the prerequisite to the concept of authenticity ... The whole sphere of authenticity is outside technical – and, of course, not only technical – reproducibility."
Gilbert, S. B. (2016). Perceived realism of virtual environments depends on authenticity.
Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 25(4), 322–324.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 08 Feb 2019 14:12:05 Europe/Copenhagen
While the perception of a virtual environment (VE) is usually described in terms of its level of immersion and users’ sense of presence, the construct of authenticity might be more useful. The authenticity of a VE depends on whether the affordances and simulations chosen in its implementation support (1) users’ expectations based on their Bayesian priors for regularities in the real world and (2) the users’ intentions in the VE . . . the term ‘‘authenticity’’ refers to whether the virtual environment provides the experience expected by the user, both consciously and unconsciously."
"Authenticity’s second stream of thought comes from art historians and archaeologists who think carefully about the past, and who often seek to establish whether artifacts found in the present are authentic. While establishing an artifact’s date and place of origin might be a matter of objective fact, Lovata (2007) argues that these facts are simply nominal authenticity, and that a richer, more complex sense of authenticity is context dependent, and depends on the motivations of the observer."
"I suggest that immersion is the system-based factor that influences presence, and that authenticity is the human-based factor that influences presence"
"A VE with higher immersion, so the argument goes, should lead to higher fidelity, and generate a greater sense of presence, the subjective experience felt by the user. But if I put you in a highly immersive environment and give you badly designed content to experience, will you perceive the VE as realistic and experience presence? Probably not. What’s missing from this dichotomy of immersion (objective, system-focused) and presence (subjective, user-focused) is a computational theory about the extent to which the VE reflects the expected regularities of world that it is attempting to represent—its authenticity. Authenticity draws on two streams of thought: expecta- tions and motivations."
Lastra, J. (1992). Reading, writing, and representing sound. In R. Altman (Ed.),
Sound Theory Sound Practice (pp. 65–86). New York: Routledge.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 03 Mar 2006 14:09:52 Europe/Copenhagen
"Those aspects of a sound which mark it as authentic are never simply self-evident "attributes" of that sound. Only their inscription within a system allowing or requiring them to become perceptible gives them a semiotic import within that system. Thus, the supposed unique attributes of an original sound become significant and, to a certain degree, perceptible as such only through their constitution as
signs -- precisely that which is not unique."
Lee, K. M. (2004). Presence, explicated.
Communication Theory, 14(1), 27–50.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 06 Feb 2019 14:56:48 Europe/Copenhagen
"Authenticity, by definition, is more likely to depend on prior cognition of the valid connection be- tween virtual and actual objects [...] Objects can be artificial at one point and then can become para-authentic at another point. For example, an artificial house (e.g., a cyber model house) becomes para-authentic when an actual house is constructed according to the cyber model’s specifications and users of the cyber model are clearly aware of the existence of the actual house."
Ribbens, W., & Malliet, S. (2010). Perceived digital game realism: A quantitative exploration of its structure.
Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 19(6), 585–600.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 17 Oct 2018 13:57:35 Europe/Copenhagen
Has a different take on authenticity than might be expected – one that is subjective rather than objective (i.e. the shotgun in Terminator is not objectively authentic but might be subjectively perceived as authentic).
Wurtzler, S. (1992). "She sang live, but the microphone was turned off": The live, the recorded and the subject of representation. In R. Altman (Ed.),
Sound Theory Sound Practice (pp. 87–103). New York: Routledge.
Last edited by: sirfragalot 03 Mar 2006 14:56:51 Europe/Copenhagen
A representation posits "an absent original event"
The audiophile has a "fetishistic relationship to the means of representing [in order to gain] increased access to an original performance event"
Representational technologies (including virtual reality) are representations for which there is no original event: "[C]opies are produced for which no original exists"