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Anderson, M. L. (2003). Embodied cognition: A field guide. Articificial Intelligence, 149, 91–130.  
Added by: sirfragalot 17 Feb 2011 07:55:55 Europe/Copenhagen
      Games are modelled as absolute and finite worlds. Yet, this model breaks down once a human (the player) enters the system. Such absolute models work fine for entities designed and modelled to work in such a system but humans are not designed to work in such constrained contexts. They are designed to adapt to infinite variety.
Barfield, W., & Danas, E. (1996). Comments on the use of olfactory displays for virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5(1), 109–121.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 27 Jul 2018 15:21:50 Europe/Copenhagen
      Notes that VEs (at the time of writing) do have smell even without specific olfactory devices but these are odours from the equipment, laboratory etc. and this often provides conflicting smell stimuli.
Barfield, W., & Weghorst, S. 1993, August 8—13 The sense of presence within virtual environments: A conceptual framework. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Amsterdam.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:22:15 Europe/Copenhagen
      Proposes a number of factors influencing presence in VEs (virtual presence):
  • display fidelity
  • environmental stability
  • sensory bandwidth (phenomenal richness)
  • interactive fidelity
  • person variables
  • task variables
  • context variables


Breinbjerg, M. (2005) The aesthetic experience of sound: Staging of auditory spaces in 3D computer games. . Retrieved January 24, 2006,  
Added by: sirfragalot 28 Aug 2006 13:30:54 Europe/Copenhagen
      Outlines three dimensions of space constructed by sound that the gamer (in Half-life 2) experiences:

1. Architectural space In a closed space, this is defined by the construction, dimensions and materials used and is a quantitative phenomenon. Since architecture itself does not produce sound, this space needs to be signalled by some sound source (such as footsteps, dripping water).

2. Relational space This is defined by distance and position of sound sources relative to the listener and is subjective and non-quantifiable because each listener has her own relational space, and is dynamic, especially when sound sources and listener move in relation to each other.

3. Space as place The genius loci that signifies what type of space it is or what function it has. e.g. traffic indicates urban space.
Gilkey, R. H., & Weisenberger, J. M. (1995). The sense of presence for the suddenly deafened adult: Implications for virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 4(4), 357–363.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 13 Aug 2018 12:53:23 Europe/Copenhagen
      "The problem of implementing a virtual environment in toto is intractable at present."
Hendrix, C., & Barfield, W. (1996). The sense of presence within auditory virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5(3), 290–301.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 27 Jul 2018 08:52:17 Europe/Copenhagen
      Auditory elements of virtual environments can be more susceptible to non-externalization than other elements such as visual, tactile etc. and this weakens presence.
      Following Loomis (1992), the authors describe the phenomenal world as the one we are perceptually aware of whereas the physical world is one that is inferred by observation and reasoning.
Hug, D. (2011). New wine in new skins: Sketching the future of game sound design. In M. Grimshaw (Ed.), Game sound technology and player interaction: concepts and developments (pp. 384–415). Hershey (PA): IGI.  
Added by: sirfragalot 17 Feb 2013 15:43:00 Europe/Copenhagen
      "If the game is part of the same system as the player, the narrative world and the existential world of the player merge into one"
Laurel, B. (1993). Computers as theatre. New York: Addison-Wesley.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 15 May 2008 10:25:48 Europe/Copenhagen
      A good definition of a virtual object:
"..may be one that has no real-world equivalent, but the persuasiveness of its representation allows us to respond to it as if it were real."
Slater, M., Usoh, M., & Steed, A. (1994). Depth of presence in virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 3(2), 130–144.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 11 Sep 2018 17:17:39 Europe/Copenhagen
      "This paper is concerned with the concept and measurement of presence in virtual environments (VEs) (or "virtual reality")."
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