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Diegesis. (2003-2006) Wikipedia, . Retrieved January 12, 2006,  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 15 May 2006 12:44:20 Europe/Copenhagen
      "Diegesis in film

In film, diegesis is the narrative that includes all the parts of the story, both those that are and those that are not actually shown on the screen (such as events that have led up to the present action; people who are being talked about; or events that are presumed to have happened elsewhere). Elements of a film can be "diegetic" or "non-diegetic." These terms are most commonly used in reference to sound in a film, but can apply to other elements. For example, an insert shot that depicts something that neither is taking place in the world of the film nor is seen, imagined, or thought by a character, is a non-diegetic insert. Titles, subtitles, and voice-over narration (with some exceptions) are also non-diegetic."
      "Film sound and music

Sound in films is termed diegetic if it is part of the narrative sphere of the film. For instance, if a character in the film is playing a piano, or turns on a CD, the resulting sound is "diegetic." If, on the other hand, music plays in the background but cannot be heard by the film's characters, it is termed non-diegetic or, more accurately, extra-diegetic. The score of a film (commonly but erroneously called the "sound track") is "non-diegetic" sound.

Example: In The Truman Show, a sequence shows the characters at night, when most of them are sleeping. Soft, soothing music plays, as is common in such scenes, but we assume that it does not exist in the fictional world of the film. However, when the camera cuts to the control room of Truman's artificial world, we see that the mood music is being played by a man standing at a bank of keyboards. This abrupt shift from apparently non-diegetic to diegetic is a kind of cinematic joke."
      "Diegesis has been contrasted since Plato's and Aristotle's times with mimesis, the form that is showing rather than telling the thoughts or the inner processes of characters, by external action and acting. Diegesis, however, is the main narrative in fiction and drama, the telling of the story by the author, in that he speaks to the reader or the audience directly. He may speak through his characters or may be the invisible narrator or even the all-knowing narrator who speaks from above in the form of commenting on the action or the characters.

What diegesis is

Diegesis may concern elements, such as characters, events and things within the main or primary narrative. However, the author may include elements which are not intended for the primary narrative, such as stories within stories; characters and events that may be referred to elsewhere or in historical contexts and that are therefore outside the main story and are thus presented in an extradiegetic situation."
      "In diegesis the author tells the story. He is the narrator himself who presents to the audience or the readership his or his characters' thoughts and all that is in his or their imagination, their fantasies and dreams."
Diegesis. (2005). In Oxford English Dictionary Online Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 01 Feb 2006 16:16:33 Europe/Copenhagen
      "The narrative presented by a cinematographic film or literary work; the fictional time, place, characters, and events which constitute the universe of the narrative."
Chion, M. (1994). Audio-vision: Sound on screen C. Gorbman, Trans. New York: Columbia University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 27 Apr 2016 08:51:48 Europe/Copenhagen
      Chion defines nondiegetic sound as: "sound whose supposed sound source is not only absent from the image but is also external to the story world".
Clair, R. (1929) The art of sound. . Retrieved January 16, 2006, ... ne/575/art-of-sound.htm  
Added by: sirfragalot 20 Jun 2006 08:17:52 Europe/Copenhagen
      "We must draw a distinction here between those sound effects which are amusing only by virtue of their novelty (which soon wears off), and those that help one to understand the action, and which excite emotions which could not have been roused by the sight of the pictures alone. The visual world at the birth of the cinema seemed to hold immeasurably richer promise.... However, if imitation of real noises seems limited and disappointing, it is possible that an interpretation of noises may have more of a future in it. Sound cartoons, using "real" noises, seem to point to interesting possibilities."
Collins, K. (2007). An introduction to the participatory and non-linear aspects of video games audio. In S. Hawkins & J. Richardson (Eds), Essays on Sound and Vision Helsinki: Helsinki University Press.  
Added by: sirfragalot 03 Feb 2009 06:00:19 Europe/Copenhagen
      Interactive audio responds directly to player actions.

Adaptive audio reacts to gameplay and can anticipate player actions. (Mor attuned to plot, narrative than to individual player actions.)

Dynamic audio is the term Collins uses to cover both interactive and adaptive audio.

Adaptive non-diegetic sounds react to gameplay but are outside the diegesis and are sounds that are not affected directly by player actions.

Interactive non-diegetic sounds are produced in response to player actions but are still outside the diegesis.

Non-dynamic diegetic sounds are not sounded in response to the player's actions but are part of the diegesis.

Interactive non-diegetic sounds are produced directly as a result of player's actions and are diegetic.

Collins also defines kinetic gestural interaction for both diegetic and non-diegetic sound as an extremely direct form of sonic interaction. The example she gives is the use of the joystick or controller to player the ocarina melodies in Selda. Other examples include the playing of guitars in Guitar Hero.
Curtis, S. (1992). The sound of early Warner Bros. cartoons. In R. Altman (Ed.), Sound Theory Sound Practice (pp. 191–203). New York: Routledge.  
Added by: sirfragalot 30 Jan 2006 07:02:57 Europe/Copenhagen
      In terms of film [sound], Curtiss defines the term 'diegetic' as "that which is accessible to the characters of a film".
Ekman, I. 2005, Meaningful noise: Understanding sound effects in computer games. Paper presented at Digital Arts and Cultures, Kopenhagen.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 14 Oct 2008 01:21:01 Europe/Copenhagen
      To be diegetic, game sound must be considered real in the context of the story.
      A game sound that is a diegetic referent, references or signifies something real inside the game.
Garcia, J. M. 2006, October 11—12 From heartland values to killing prostitutes: An overview of sound in the video game Grand Theft Auto Liberty City Stories. Paper presented at Audio Mostly 2006, Piteå, Sweden.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 17 Sep 2009 09:49:33 Europe/Copenhagen
      "In the most immersing environments reminders of the structural level of the game are gone and the player can concentrate on the game-world level."
Hug, D. (2011). New wine in new skins: Sketching the future of game sound design. In M. Grimshaw (Ed.), Game sound technology and player interaction: concepts and developments (pp. 384–415). Hershey (PA): IGI.  
Added by: sirfragalot 17 Feb 2013 15:43:00 Europe/Copenhagen
      "If the game is part of the same system as the player, the narrative world and the existential world of the player merge into one"
Jørgensen, K. (2007). On transdiegetic sounds in computer games. Northern Lights, 5, 105–117.  
Added by: sirfragalot 05 Jan 2009 10:37:08 Europe/Copenhagen
      Transdiegetic sound is "[m]usic that has no source in the game world but still has the ability to inform about events in that world".
King, G., & Krzywinska, T. (2006). Film studies and digital games. In J. Rutter & J. Bryce (Eds), Understanding digital games (pp. 112–128). London: Sage Publications.  
Added by: sirfragalot 02 Jun 2007 02:39:36 Europe/Copenhagen
      Diegetic game sound comprises environmental (e.g. distant sound) and reactive sound (e.g. local sound).
Kromand, D. 2008, October 22—22 Sound and the diegesis in survival-horror games. Paper presented at Audio Mostly 2008, Piteå, Sweden.  
Added by: sirfragalot 24 Nov 2008 11:12:05 Europe/Copenhagen
      "The collapse of the barrier between the diegetic and non-diegetic soundscape is a strategy to build a horror atmosphere."
      "The soundscape of Silent Hill 2 operates within a framework of uncertainty that constantly holds the player between knowledge and ignorance."
      The lack of a barrier between diegetic/nondiegetic sounds "purposefully hinders an efficient transfer of affordance".
      Debating Jørgensen's 'trans-diegetic' sound terminology: sound that crosses the barrier between diegetic and nondiegetic worlds (cf Count Basie's orchestra in Blazing Saddles at first seems nondiegetic until the hero comes across the orchestra playing in the desert at which point the music becomes diegetic.

Trans-diegesis is a short transgression of the barrier between diegetic/nondiegetic, not a breakdown.

The trans-diegetic sound transfers information to the player from the game. Two types, 'reactive sound affirming player input or as a proactive sound informing the player of an altered game state (Jørgensen 2007; 116).'
Whalen, Z. (2004) Play along -- an approach to videogame music. Game Studies, 4(1) . Retrieved February 20, 2005,  
Added by: sirfragalot 06 Dec 2015 19:50:01 Europe/Copenhagen
      "...studies of the relationship between audial and visual elements in older media (for example, film) prove useful for understanding game music because certain basic ideas (for example, diegetic versus non-diegetic musical sound) apply to videogames." See also (Chion, 1992, 1994; Curtis, 1992) etc.
      "By simultaneously enriching the worlds of videogames and assisting the player's navigating the space of videogames, music is essential to the semantic operations of a videogame."
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