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Ballas, J. A. (1994). Delivery of information through sound. In G. Kramer (Ed.), Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces (pp. 79–94). Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 28 Apr 2009 06:34:10 Europe/Copenhagen
      The metaphor function of sound is an extension of the simile function and ideally should communicate so effectively that the sound enters common usage (i.e. become dead metaphors). Something that can be correctly interpreted more quickly than equivalent speech.
Kramer, G. (1994). Some organizing principles for representing data with sound. In G. Kramer (Ed.), Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces (pp. 185–221). Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.  
Last edited by: sirfragalot 21 Oct 2005 14:49:20 Europe/Copenhagen
      Discusses the use of metaphor to link abstract sounds to data sets where, for sonification purposes, no realistic sounds are available (e.g. stock market sonifications).

When sonifying 'more' and 'less', metaphorical associations for 'more' might be:

  • louder (larger objects, more sensory impact)
  • brighter (more partials or more high-frequency energy)
  • faster (more sound in the same time frame)
  • higher pitch (more cycles per second)


Affective associations relate to the feelings aroused by sound. For example desirable and undesirable qualities in the sonified data set may be mapped to sound ugliness, richness, in-tune/out of tune etc.

There may be some interaction between metaphorical and affective mappings and subjectivity plays its part.
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