Sound Research WIKINDX

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van Leeuwen, T. (1999). Speech, music, sound. London: MacMillan Press.
Last edited by: Deleted user 2006-09-22 15:16:22 Pop. 3.5%
      Presents three coding orientations for sound derived from the greater or lesser articulation of various modalities (see below):

    Less articulation = more abstract. The subject becomes generalized. Music is the most abstract form of sound yet can also be sensory (with increased articulation of, for example, friction).
    An imitative approach -- what you would hear if you were really there. Often used in films, especially documentaries. Verisimilitude.
    Emotive impact is most important. Articulation is increased at the expense of naturalistic representation.

There may be configurations of these three.


  • dynamic range
  • pitch range
  • durational variation
  • perspectival depth
  • degrees of fluctuation (e.g. vibrato)
  • degrees of friction (e.g. smooth <--> rough)
  • absorption range (wet <--> dry)
  • degree of directionality
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