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McMahan, A. (2003). Immersion, engagement, and presence: A new method for analyzing 3-D video games. In M. J. P. Wolf & B. Perron (Eds), The Video Game Theory Reader (pp. 67–87). New York: Routledge. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw (14 Jul 2006 10:50:30 Europe/Copenhagen)   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw (01 Feb 2018 15:16:24 Europe/Copenhagen)
Resource type: Book Article
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 0-415-96579-9
BibTeX citation key: McMahan2003
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Categories: Game Design
Keywords: Immersion, Realism
Creators: McMahan, Perron, Wolf
Publisher: Routledge (New York)
Collection: The Video Game Theory Reader
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Notes
Some of the ideas are expanded upon in Ermi (2005) and builds upon ideas of presence by Fencott (1999).

Ermi, L., & Mäyrä, F. 2005, June 16—20 Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: Analysing immersion. Paper presented at Changing Views -- Worlds in Play, Toronto.
Fencott, C. (1999) Presence and the content of virtual environments. August 4, 2005, http://web.onyxnet.co.u ... co.uk/pres99/pres99.htm
Added by: Mark Grimshaw  Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw
Quotes
pp.68-69   "Immersion is not wholly subject to the technology's physical dimensions nor is it wholly dependent on audio or photo realism. Three conditions are required for immersion"

  • "the user's expectations of the game or environment must match the environment's conventions fairly closely"
  • "the user's actions must have a non-trivial impact on the environment"
  • "the conventions of the world must be consistent"


These conditions are described further by Ermi (2005)

Ermi, L., & Mäyrä, F. 2005, June 16—20 Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: Analysing immersion. Paper presented at Changing Views -- Worlds in Play, Toronto.   Added by: Mark Grimshaw
Keywords:   Conformity & expectation Immersion
Paraphrases
pp.75-76   Defining realism as one of the factors of immersion/presence, McMahan describes two parts of it: social realism and perceptual realism.

She extends Fencott (1999)'s work and his argument that, because presence relies on perception (which is a mental rather than sensory/tactile state), increased presence derives from increased field of view and a strong sense of foreground and background. Fencott has derived Perceptual Opportunities which include:

  • Sureties -- indicators, signs, architectural detail
  • Shocks -- polygon leaks, poor design - anything which detracts from presence and indicates that this is merely a game
  • Surprises -- nonpredictable details that are a part of the virtual world's logic and design. 3 types of surprises

    1. Attractors - tempt the user to do something.
    2. Connectors -- similar to sureties in helping the user's orientation.
    3. Retainers -- make the user "linger and enjoy" parts of the environment.



Fencott, C. (1999) Presence and the content of virtual environments. August 4, 2005, http://web.onyxnet.co.u ... co.uk/pres99/pres99.htm   Added by: Mark Grimshaw
Keywords:   Realism
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