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Heeter, C. (2016). A meditation on meditation and embodied presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 25(2), 175–183. 
Added by: Mark Grimshaw (09 Mar 2018 13:30:11 Europe/Copenhagen)   Last edited by: Mark Grimshaw (07 Apr 2018 18:26:46 Europe/Copenhagen)
Resource type: Journal Article
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1162/PRES_a_00256
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1054-7460
BibTeX citation key: Heeter2016
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Categories: General
Keywords: Immersion, Presence, Salience
Creators: Heeter
Publisher: MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Collection: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
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Makes a difference between presence in virtual worlds and in real worlds. We are not always present (in real worlds) because the normal state is that of a wandering mind ('the antithesis of presence' p.182) that is not attentive to the external world.

Introduces the concept of 'embodied presence'.


"To be human is to be embodied, to exist in a sea of bodily sensations far vaster than our limited attentional spotlight can attend to. Bodily sensations are the substrate of all experience. Even our emotions and thoughts are experienced in and by the body. And yet, most of the time, most of us focus on something other these present- moment sensations. Most of the time, we are not present. How people structure their attention ‘‘determines what will or will not appear in consciousness’’ (Csiks- zentmihalyi, 1990). Embodied presence occurs when our mind integrates attention to embodied feelings with other present-moment bodily sensations to produce a heightened awareness of the moment and of the sensory self. However, the major theories of presence (social presence, copresence, self-presence, hyper presence, and external presence) all define presence as an illusion about the virtual-ness of a virtual experience (Schultze, 2010). Their approach implies that we are always present when there is no virtuality. In this essay, I will argue that 1) regardless of virtuality, we are almost never present; 2) embodied presence is an attentional orientation that is learned and practiced; and 3) the design of virtual experiences can facilitate embodied presence."

  Added by: Mark Grimshaw
Keywords:   Presence

"embodied presence is an attentional orientation that is learned and practice"

  Added by: Mark Grimshaw
Keywords:   Presence

"the normal human condition is to not be present."

  Added by: Mark Grimshaw
Keywords:   Presence

"Interoceptive awareness is a prerequisite for embodied presence . . . The interoceptive pathway and the DMN are competing neural pathways. They are not active at the same time . . . Interoceptive awareness refers to sensitivity to and awareness of physical sensations such as tempera- ture, pain, touch, and sensing from internal gastrointes- tinal, respiratory, cardiovascular, and urogenital systems."

  Added by: Mark Grimshaw
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Salience

"Closing the eyes activates interoception. . . closing eyes some of the time enhanced interoceptive awareness and when eyes re-opened, the virtual world felt different. More vivid . . . Closing the eyes animates our somatosensory systems including touch, proprioception (vibration and position), pain, and temperature (Jao et al., 2013). Closing the eyes also activates olfaction (smell) and gustatory systems (taste), even in the absence of olfactory or gustatory stimuli (Wiesmann et al., 2006). Closing the eyes activates our interoception network (used for processing the internal state) that includes imagination and memory (Xu et al., 2014). Opening the eyes is associated with stronger ‘‘local ef- ficiency’’ in specific regions of the brain and an increase in specialized information processing. But this comes at a cost. Opening the eyes suppresses interoception. Opening the eyes reduces the synchronicity, global effi- ciency, and integrated connections across visual, somatic, and auditory sensory systems (Jao et al., 2013; Xu et al., 2014). Opening the eyes suppresses imagination, mem- ory, and perception of internal states."

Jao, T., Ve ́rtes, P. E., Alexander-Bloch, A. F., Tang, I.-N., Yu, Y.-C., Chen, J.-H., & Bullmore, E. T. (2013). Volitional eyes opening perturbs brain dynamics and functional con- nectivity regardless of light input. NeuroImage, 69, 21–34.

Wiesmann, M., Kopietz, R., Albrecht, J., Linn, J., Reime, U., Kara, E., . . . Stephan, T. (2006). Eye closure in darkness ani- mates olfactory and gustatory cortical areas. NeuroImage, 32(1), 293–300.

Xu, P., Huang, R., Wang, J., Van Dam, N. T., Xie, T., Dong, Z., . . . Luo, Y. (2014). Different topological organization of human brain functional networks with eyes open versus eyes closed. NeuroImage, 90, 246–255.

  Added by: Mark Grimshaw
Keywords:   Immersion Presence Salience
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